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Let’s get this thing started. Euclid (LINK) 323–283 BCE. Wrote a series of 13 books on geometry called The Elements. ((BLURB))

2. 280 BCE Aristarchus of Samos: used a heliocentric, heliostatic model
((A what?))

3. 150s BCE Seleucus of Seleucia: discovery of tides being caused by the moon
(That’s cool!)

4. 2nd century 150 Ptolemy: produced the geocentric model of the solar system.
(My man!)

5. 10th century 984 Ibn Sahl accurately describes the optics which became known as Snell’s law of refraction.

6. 11th century:1021 Ibn al-Haytham’s Book of Optics. First use of controlled experiments and reproducibility of its results

7. 11th century:1054 Various early astronomers observe supernova (modern designation SN 1054), later correlated to the Crab Nebula.

8. 12th century: 1121 Al-Khazini variation of gravitation and gravitational potential energy at a distance; the decrease of air density with altitude.

9. 13th century: 1220–1235

Robert Grosseteste designed the rudimentals of the scientific method.

0. 13th century: 1242

Ibn al-Nafis discovered both the pulmonary circulation and circulatory systems.

11. 15th century: 1494

Luca Pacioli: first codification of the Double-entry bookkeeping system, which slowly developed in previous centuries.

12. 16th century: 1543

Vesalius was the pioneer in researching into human anatomy

13. 16th century: 1543

Vesalius pioneered the research into human anatomy.

14. 16th century: 1600

William Gilbert pioneered research in the Earth’s magnetic field.

15. 17th century: 1609

Johannes Kepler discovered the first two laws of planetary motion.

16. 17th century: 1610

Galileo Galilei invented the Sidereus Nuncius for telescopic observations.

17. 17th century: 1614

John Napier use of logarithms for calculation.

18. 17th century: 1619

Johannes Kepler discovered the third law of planetary motion.

19. 17th century: 1628

Willebrord Snellius improved on the law of refraction also known as Snell’s law

20. 17th century: 1638

Galileo Galilei discovered the laws of falling bodies.

21. 17th century: 1643

Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer.

22. 17th century: 1662

Robert Boyle discovered Boyle’s law of ideal gas.

23. 17th century: 1665

Robert Hooke Discovers the Cell.

24. 17th century: 1669

Nicholas Steno discovered the Proposes that fossils are organic remains embedded in layers of sediment, hence the basis of stratigraphy.

25. 17th century: 1669

Jan Swammerdam discovered Epigenesis in insects.

26. 17th century: 1672

Sir Isaac Newton: discovers that white light is a spectrum of a mixture of distinct colored rays

27. 17th century: 1673

Christiaan Huygens does the first study of oscillating system and design of pendulum clocks.

28. 17th century: 1675

Anton van Leeuwenhoek Observes Microorganisms by Microscope.

29. 17th century: 1676

Ole Rømer makes the first measurement of the speed of light.

30. 17th century: 1687

Sir Isaac Newton’s Classical Mathematical description of the fundamental force of universal gravitation and the three physical laws of motion.

31. 18th century: 1745

Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist creates first capacitor, the Leyden jar.

32. 18th century:1751

Benjamin Franklin discovers Lightning is electrical.

33. 18th century:1761

Mikhail Lomonosov makes discovery of the atmosphere of Venus.

34. 18th century:1771

Charles Messier Publishes catalogue of astronomical objects (Messier Objects) now known to include galaxies, star clusters, and nebulae.

35. 18th century: 1781

William Herschel announces discovery of Uranus, expanding the known boundaries of the solar system for the first time in modern history.

36. 18th century: 1785

William Withering: publishes the first definitive account of the use of foxglove (digitalis) for treating dropsy.

37. 18th century: 1789

Antoine Lavoisier discovers the law of conservation of mass, basis for chemistry, and the beginning of modern chemistry.

38. 18th century: 1796

Georges Cuvier Establishes extinction as a fact

39. 18th century: 1796

Edward Jenner starts small pox historical accounting.

40. 18th century: 1796

Hanaoka Seishū develops general anaesthesia.

41. 18th century: 1800

Alessandro Volta: discovers electrochemical series and invents the battery.

42. 19th century: 1805

John Dalton discovers the Atomic Theory in Chemistry.

43. 19th century: 1820

Hans Christian Ørsted discovers that a current passed through a wire will deflect the needle of a compass, establishing a deep relationship between electricity and magnetism (electromagnetism).

44. 19th century: 1821

Thomas Johann Seebeck is the first to observe a property of semiconductors.

45. 19th century: 1827

Georg Ohm states the Ohm’s law, the Law of Electricity.

46. 19th century: 1827

Amedeo Avogadro invented the Avogadro’s law, the Gas law.

47. 19th century: 1827

Amedeo Avogadro invented the Avogadro’s law The Gas law.

48. 19th century: 1828

Friedrich Wöhler synthesized urea, destroying vitalism

49. 19th century: 1830

Nikolai Lobachevsky created Non-Euclidean geometry

50. 19th century: 1833

Anselme Payen isolates first enzyme, diastase.

51. 19th century: 1838

Matthias Schleiden discovers all plants are made of cells.

52. 19th century: 1838

Friedrich Bessel makes first successful measure of stellar parallax to star 61 Cygni.

53. 19th century: 1842

Christian Doppler discovers the Doppler effect.

54. 19th century: 1843

James Prescott Joule states the Law of Conservation of energy the First law of thermodynamics, also 1847 – Helmholtz, Conservation of energy.

55. 19th century: 1846

Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich Louis d’Arrest discovery of Neptune.

55. 19th century: 1846

Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich Louis d’Arrest discovery of Neptune.

56. 19th century: 1848

Lord Kelvin discovers absolute zero.

57. 19th century: 1858

Rudolf Virchow discovers cells can only arise from pre-existing cells.

58. 19th century: 1859

Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace: Theory of evolution by natural selection

59. 19th century: 1861

John Tyndall makes Experiments in Radiant Energy that reinforced the Greenhouse Effect.

60. 19th century: 1864

James Clerk Maxwell defines the Theory of electromagnetism.

61. 19th century: 1865

Gregor Mendel discovers the Mendel’s laws of inheritance, basis of genetics.

62. 19th century: 1869

Dmitri Mendeleev creates the Periodic table.

63. 19th century: 1871

Lord Rayleigh discovers Diffuse sky radiation, Rayleigh scattering, explains why sky appears blue.

64. 19th century: 1873

Willoughby Smith discovers photoconductivity.

65. 19th century: 1875

William Crookes invented the Crookes tube and studied cathode rays.

66. 19th century: 1876

Josiah Willard Gibbs founded chemical thermodynamics, the phase rule.

67. 19th century: 1884

Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff: discovered the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions (in his work “Etudes de dynamique chimique”).

68. 19th century: 1887

Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley find lack of evidence for the aether.

69. 19th century: 1888

Friedrich Reinitzer discovers liquid crystals.

70. 19th century: 1892

Dmitri Ivanovsky discovers for the first time a virus.

71. 19th century: 1895

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers x-rays.

72. 19th century: 1898

Martinus Beijerinck concluded a virus infectious—replicating in the host—and thus not a mere toxin and gave it the name ‘virus.

73. 19th century: 1898

J.J. Thomson proposed the Plum pudding model of an atom.

74. 19th century: 1898

Marie Curie discovers polonium, radium, and coins the term “radioactivity”.

75. 19th century: 1900

Max Planck, Planck’s law of black body radiation, basis for quantum theory.

76. 20th century: 1901

Annie Jump Cannon discovers stellar classification.

77. 20th century: 1905

Albert Einstein creates the theory of special relativity, explanation of Brownian motion, and the photoelectric effect.

78. 20th century: 1906

Walther Nernst discovers the Third law of thermodynamics.

79. 20th century: 1909

Fritz Haber designs the Haber Process for industrial production of ammonia.

80. 20th century: 1909

Robert Andrews Millikan conducts the oil drop experiment and determines the charge on an electron.

81. 20th century: 1910

Williamina Fleming is the first white dwarf, 40 Eridani B.

82. 20th century : 1911

Ernest Rutherford discovers the Atomic nucleus.

83. 20th century: 1911

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovers Superconductivity.

84. 20th century: 1912

Alfred Wegener discovers Continental drift.

85. 20th century: 1912

Vesto Slipher discovers galactic redshifts.

86. 20th century: 1913

Henry Moseley defines atomic number

87. 20th century: 1915

Albert Einstein discovers the theory of general relativity.

88. 20th century: 1915

Karl Schwarzschild makes discovery of the Schwarzschild radius leading to the identification of black holes.

89. 20th century: 1920

Arthur Eddington discovers Stellar nucleosynthesis.

90. 20th century: 1922

Frederick Banting, Charles Best, James Collip, John Macleod: isolation and production of insulin to control diabetes.

91. 20th century: 1924

Edwin Hubble makes the discovery that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies

92. 20th century: 1925

Erwin Schrödinger defines Schrödinger equation, the Quantum mechanics.

3. 20th century: 1925

Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin makes the Discovery of the composition of the Sun and that Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe

94. 20th century: 1927

Georges Lemaîtrestats the Theory of the Big Bang.

95. 20th century: 1928

Paul Dirac states the Dirac equation in Quantum mechanics.

96. 20th century: 1929

Edwin Hubble states the Hubble’s law of the expanding universe.

97. 20th century: 1928

Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin, the first beta-lactam antibiotic.

98. 20th century: 1929

Lars Onsager’s reciprocal relations, a potential fourth law of thermodynamics.

99. 20th century: 1930

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar discovers his eponymous limit of the maximum mass of a white dwarf star.

100. 20th century: 1932

James Chadwick makes the Discovery of the neutron.

101. 20th century: 1932

Karl Guthe Jansky discovers the first astronomical radio source, Sagittarius A.

102. 20th century: 1934

Clive McCay, Calorie restriction extends the maximum lifespan of another species.

103. 20th century: 1938

Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann in Nuclear fission.

104. 20th century: 1938

Isidor Rabi discovers Nuclear magnetic resonance.

105. 20th century: 1943

Oswald Avery proves that DNA is the genetic material of the chromosome

106. 20th century: 1945

Howard Florey starts Mass production of penicillin.

107. 20th century: 1947

William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invent the first transistor.

108. 20th century: 1948

Claude Elwood Shannon discovers ‘A mathematical theory of communication’ a seminal paper in Information Theory.

109. 20th century: 1951

George Otto Gey propagates first cancer cell line, HeLa.

110. 20th century: 1952

Jonas Salk develops and tests first polio vaccine.

111. 20th century: 1953

Crick and Watson helical structure of DNA, basis for molecular biology.

112. 20th century: 1962

Riccardo Giacconi and his team discover the first cosmic x-ray source, Scorpius X-1.

113. 20th century: 1963

Lawrence Morley, Fred Vine, and Drummond Matthews, Paleomagnetic stripes in ocean crust as evidence of plate tectonics the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis.

114. 20th century: 1964

Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, detection of CMBR providing experimental evidence for the Big Bang.

115. 20th century: 1965

Leonard Hayflick discovers that normal cells divide only a certain number of times and calls it the Hayflick limit.

116. 20th century: 1967

Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish discover the first pulsar.

117. 20th century: 1967

Vela nuclear test detection satellites discover the first gamma-ray burst.

118. 20th century: 1971

Place cells in the brain are discovered by John O’Keefe.
119. 20th century: 1974

Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. discover indirect evidence for gravitational wave radiation in the Hulse–Taylor binary.

120. 20th century: 1982

Becker et al. discover the first millisecond pulsar.

121. 20th century: 1986

Karl Müller and Johannes Bednorz: Discovery of High-temperature superconductivity.

122. 20th century: 1995

Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz definitively observe the first extrasolar planet around a main sequence star.

123. 20th century: 1996

Roslin Institute created Dolly the sheep was cloned

124. 20th century: 1998

Supernova Cosmology Project and the High-Z Supernova Search Team. The discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe / Dark Energy.

125. 21th century: 2001

The first draft of the Human Genome Project is published.

126. 21th century: 2005

Grid cells in the brain are discovered by Edvard Moser and May-Britt Moser.

127. 21th century: 2010

J. Craig Venter Institute creates the first synthetic genome for a bacterial cell.

128. 21th century: 2010

The Neanderthal Genome Project presented preliminary genetic evidence that interbreeding did likely take place and that a small but significant portion of Neanderthal admixture is present in modern non-African populations

129. 21th century: 2012

Higgs Boson is discovered at CERN, confirmed to 99.999% certainty.

130. 21th century: 2012

Photonic molecules are discovered at MIT.

131. 21st century: 2014

Exotic hadrons are discovered at the LHCb.

132. 21st century: 2015

Traces of liquid water discovered on Mars.

133. 21st century: 2016

The LIGO team detected gravitational waves from a black hole merger.

133. 21st century: 2016

The LIGO team detected gravitational waves from a black hole merger.